In today’s world, we try to create a system or products which removes the barrier for people with disabilities. Whether it be the digital or physical world. Most people take vision for granted. Watching movies, driving car, making food and also coding while starring at the computer. But ever wondered how people with disability would cope up with this digital world. As the most techsavy person would spend most of his/her day or night surfing through the internet trying different things which they have never used before.
We must have heard of T.V Raman(Blind programmer who works for Google). He sets an example, giving people with sight disabilities hope to follow their dreams. Various methods and softwares are used to ease the trouble for people with disabilities. Use of screen readers is a boon for people with sight disability.
There are various tools and languages that help them to program or to understand the system. Jaws is the most used tool for text-to-speech on windows XP. Jaws can be used to access most of windows application.
Screen reader runs in the background and monitors OS activity while alerting the user via synthetic speech or a physical braille display (which generally shows around 20 to 80 characters at a time). Java programmers use SWT as a GUI. For .net visual studio by Microsoft is quite useful as most of its features are accessible with Jaws.
The real problem is with indentation as most screen readers avoid reading that hence with python its a big issue as white spaces matter in python. Still, there is a facility to turn indentation on screen readers but visual studio does a pretty good job with indentations. Emacspeak (another speech interface application) does make use of different voices/pitches to indicate different parts of syntax (keywords, comments, identifiers, etc).
Eclipse has an accessible code editor but other development tools as debug console, plugins for designing or documentation area present problems for assistive tools for blind users.
Still with all the available technologies most useful way for blind people is to rely on the team to understand the design.